Note: the Prusa3D team, who have become the main driving force behind making Slic3r more usable, are implementing similar improvements in parallel with what I will be presenting here, hence certain features will appear in the Prusa3d fork of Slic3r soon. For the time being though, the post-processing script presented here is probably your best bet for making good-looking dual extrusion prints on an FFCP or similar printer.
This article presents a post-processing script that turns regular Slic3r dual extrusion output into something that allows a multi-extruder 3D printer like the FlashForge Creator Pro to produce dual extrusion prints of high quality. The prints will take ages and quite a bit of waste material will be produced, which is inevitable due to the rather poor design of putting two extruders on the same carriage. However, they will look great. If you want to do dual extrusion prints on a regular basis, a better dual extruder printer design like the BCN3D Sigma may be a good investment. The Prusa3D with multi-material upgrade allows to go beyond dualstrusion (but its design still requires priming the extruder). For the occasional dualstrusion with the less-than-optimal design of the FFCP though, the approach presented here is adequate if you have a bit of patience.
Until recently, I shied away from trying dual extrusion prints using Slic3r with my FlashForge Creator Pro, because the few times I tried, the results were pretty awful. I never even tried PLA dual extrusions before this, because it usually oozes even worse than ABS. There are two main problems: first, the unused extruder keeps oozing filament, polluting the print. Second, due to all this oozing, when the nozzle resumes printing, there is considerable lag and nothing comes out the first few seconds, causing gaps in the model.
The only provisions Slic3r offers to combat oozing at the time of this writing, are adding a skirt as tall as the object, and an experimental feature to lower the temperature of the unused nozzle. The skirt is ineffective for larger objects because the other nozzle will be inside the skirt and pass over the model anyway, oozing all over it. The skirt is also printed always with the same nozzle, making it useless to prime both nozzles. The temperature feature is useless because it has bugs that cause the wrong nozzle to heat up at the wrong times with the wrong temperature, and moreover it does not wait for the other nozzle to cool down, therefore it oozes anyway.
An ideal tool change should:
As you can see, a whole procedure expensive both in time and material, therefore it is essential to bring the number of tool changes for any print down to the absolute minimum. Only the Prusa3D fork of Slic3r starting from version 1.35.1 optimizes tool changes, older versions and the main Slic3r release just always start printing every layer with extruder 1, then switches to extruder 2. Depending on what version you use, it may even do three tool changes in the first layer to print the skirt with both extruders.
Because I saw no evidence of anything like the above strategy being implemented in Slic3r, I did it myself. I wrote a script that prints a hollow priming tower behind the actual object. It varies the position at which the wipe occurs, to reduce the risk that a wipe operation will bump into a solidified blob from a previous wipe. The script does not actively wait for the inactive nozzle to cool down, only for the active nozzle to heat up. The main reason for this is that it is better not to wait until the nozzle has cooled down completely when wiping it.
Make sure to update your Slic3r configs if you are upgrading this script from a version older than 0.6. The configs and start G-code were switched to relative E coordinates between version 0.5 and 0.6. The script will refuse to work with the old G-code.
The script is written in Perl. It pulls the input G-code file apart and then reassembles it in an order that minimises the number of tool changes, and replaces the simple tool changes by the above procedure. If there was no tool change in a layer, it will ‘top up’ the priming tower to maintain it, unless there are no more tool changes in the rest of the print.
The main reason why I put this on GitHub, is to make it easier for anyone with programming skills to contribute to it. For instance, it would be nice to make the script compatible with other slicing programs. I know, it is in Perl and not some fancy new hipster language, but if you look in the source code, you'll see that I believe it is possible to write readable and maintainable Perl code.
The README.md file in the download contains concise instructions, here are somewhat more elaborate ones:
The current version of the script cannot be directly configured as a post-processing script inside Slic3r, because it prints the converted file on standard output. You'll need to manually run the script and redirect the output to a file, or use a wrapper script. The config bundle that can be downloaded on my main Slic3r how-to page, contains a wrapper script make_fcp_x3g that can invoke the dualstrusion script, as well as the GPX tool. Edit that script so it contains the path where you placed the dualstrusion-postproc.pl script. You need a Perl interpreter, which is not a problem in Linux or Mac OS X, but for Windows you'll probably need something extra (however, I cannot help you with that although the latest Win10 versions allow easy integration of a Linux shell).
Important: the script only works if ‘Use relative E distances’ is enabled in printer settings. If you use my latest Slic3r configs, this should be the case.
This script must either be used with my custom G-code, or you must modify it to look for your own custom markers. Create a new printer profile in Slic3r, or update all the existing ‘Dual Material’ profiles. Paste the ‘Start-dual-extruders-postproc.gcode’ into the Start G-code field, the ‘End.gcode’ in the End G-code field, and the ‘ToolChange.gcode’ in the Tool Change G-code field.
In Slic3r, load the STL file for one part of the dual material model. Then click ‘Settings’ for this part, and inside that dialog, load the second part. Assign extruder 1 (right) and 2 (left) to the desired parts.
You should enable a tall skirt for maximum print quality. The skirt must reach the highest layer where a tool change occurs. One loop is enough, but you should fiddle with the ‘Minimum extrusion length’ until the first layer of the skirt has at least 2 loops, or 3 to 4 for small objects, to ensure it is well anchored. (Mind that Slic3r will show the additional loops for all layers in the preview and layers, even if it will only print one loop for all layers above the first one.)
Make sure there is enough space behind the object to print the priming tower. It needs 22 mm behind the highest Y coordinate that occurs in the print, skirt included. I plan to implement a smarter placement of the priming tower and automatic shifting of the entire print when necessary, but for the time being you'll have to do this yourself.
The default values configured in the script should be OK. You may want to tweak the temperatureDrop value depending on your filament. A smaller drop will speed up the tool change, but increase the risk of ooze.
Make sure your nozzles are perfectly clean before starting a print. This will reduce the risk that strands of ooze stick to them and get past the wipe tower and skirt, and end up in the print.
For things with inlays, like typical coasters or poker chips, you should enable the ‘Lift Z’ feature in the Printer Settings, not necessarily for the entire print, but certainly for the topmost layers. I recommend a lift distance of 0.2 mm. This avoids that the second colour printed in a layer, smears the first one during travel moves. Smearing is difficult to avoid and especially visible when combining black filament with a lighter colour. To get the best results, use nozzles that are as pointy as possible.
If you get the impression that the two materials are not perfectly aligned, you may need to adjust your toolhead offsets. This can be caused by your extruder carriage not being perfectly aligned with the X axis. You can of course try to loosen the screws and wiggle it around, but it is better to measure the deviation and compensate for it. Do a small test print and make a guess at how far the extruders are misaligned. Go to ‘Toolhead Offsets’ in the printer's ‘Settings’ LCD menu. Normally, you only need to modify the Y offset and leave the X offset at zero. If the left extruder is shifted upwards (i.e. prints closer to the rear edge of the bed than the right one), use a positive Y toolhead offset, otherwise use a negative one (this seems contradictory with what the Sailfish manual says, but it is how it works for me). Repeat the test print and tweak the Y offset until it looks good. You will need to re-check alignment every time you re-mount the extruder carriage.
If the object you're printing has small intricate details and small perimeters, you should avoid large differences in extrusion rate, otherwise you risk over- or under-extrusion problems. If you are using my Slic3r profiles, the ‘mediumStrong’ print settings are a good starting point, but they will still print the skirt at a much higher speed than the rest. To remedy this, reduce the ‘support material’ speed to be nearer to the perimeters speed. You can also try increasing the small perimeters speed a bit. Next to this, it helps a lot if all parts in the model can be printed with at least 2 perimeters, because this gives the extruders more time to equalise their pressure before printing the outer walls of your object. If you cannot edit the model to make small parts thicker, it might still be possible to increase the thickness of small details by using the ‘XY size compensation’ in the advanced settings.
First, the script assumes that the print always starts with T0 (the right extruder). This is no longer guaranteed with the latest Prusa3D Slic3r releases. If the first layer of your model only has a single material, either make sure to load it in the right extruder, or add a dummy object and assign it to the right extruder to ensure there is some T0 material on the first layer.
Second, it is not suitable for printing two materials that should not be printed on top of each other, like ABS and PLA, because there is only one priming tower that just piles everyting together. I might update the script to allow two separate priming towers. It should be OK for soluble support materials, because those are supposed to be stackable.
This script is released under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. In short, you can do pretty much anything with it, at the condition that you give appropriate credit to the author. You can use my real name ‘Alexander Thomas’ or my pseudonym ‘DrLex’, and you should preferably link to this website.